A mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure performed to remove infected mastoid air cells. The mastoid air cells are open spaces containing air that are located throughout the mastoid bone, the prominent bone located behind the ear that projects from the temporal bone of the skull. The air cells are connected to a cavity in the upper part of the bone, which is in turn connected to the middle ear. The primary goal of the surgery is to completely remove the infection and clear the ear. Mastoidectomies are also performed sometimes to repair paralyzed facial nerves.