The middle ear is an air filled cavity lying behind the eardrum. If the bones of the middle ear have been damaged from infection, trauma, cholesteatoma, surgery or other causes, they can be repaired by replacing them with man-made prostheses. Many techniques for this procedure exist and need to be tailored to the individual case and anatomy. Any and or all of the middle ear bones may be replaced leading to hearing within the normal range. This delicate procedure gives excellent results in the majority of cases. This is done under local or general anesthesia on an outpatient basis and takes about an hour to three hours.